Malt grains are crushed in a malt mill to free its mealy body from the husks making it available to the water. Malt crushing ensures the dissolution of extractives, and other physical and chemical processes during mashing.
The stage of saccharification of the wort with malt is called mashing. From the resulting coarse malt grains with husks, a mash is made by mixing it with water. The malt is poured into the mash tan, which contains water heated to the required temperature, then fermentation starts. Mashing continues for 30-90 minutes, during which time sugar, starch, and polysaccharides from the malt pass into an aqueous solution, mixing with the enzymes contained in the malt grains. Then sparging starts: the mash is sprayed with hot water onto it to rinse out residual sugars. Next lautering (filtering) takes place: sweet wort is separated from spent grain.
The sweet wort is boiled in a wort kettle. During the boiling process, hops are added to the wort. Hopping gives beer its characteristic bitterness and aroma, as well as stability, preservation of freshness, and beer properties since hops serve as a good preservative.
After the wort is cooled and saturated with oxygen, brewer's yeast is added to it. Within a few days at a certain temperature in the fermentation tank fermentation of the wort takes place. The yeast absorbs the sugars from the wort, turning them into alcohol and carbon dioxide. As a result of the fermentation of the wort, "green" (young) beer is obtained.